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Marketers often utilize the 4Ps of marketing mix to increase or achieve their sales goal for a project or service. These marketing elements play a key role in ensuring the success of a marketing plan. So, let’s understand what this marketing mix entails and how you can use it to create your marketing strategy.

What are the Four Ps of Marketing?

The marketing mix includes the 4 Ps which stand for product, price, place, and promotion. The concept of the four Ps has been around since the 1950s. These elements are integral when it comes to marketing a product or service. You can leverage these factors to develop an intricate strategy for marketing, advertising, and promotion, as well as positioning your product or brand. 

The concept of the marketing mix was popularized by Neil Borden, an advertising professor at Harvard. This was followed by E. Jerome McCarthy introducing the 4Ps in his groundbreaking textbook called “Basic Marketing, A Managerial Approach” in 1960. 

McCarthy distilled the marketing mix into four elements adapted for curating various marketing strategies. These 4Ps guide marketers to utilize dynamic market forces to deliver the right products at the right place, with the right promotion, and at the right price. Adhering to these aspects of marketing would aid in satisfying the target customers and meeting the objectives of a business.

Explain 4 Ps of Marketing With Examples

All 4 components of the marketing mix create a dynamic relationship with one another. They are designed to assist marketers in considering all aspects of a product or service. So, as a marketer, you can build your effective marketing strategy on the four Ps and ensure all the elements are prioritized. Now, let’s take a look at all the different elements of marketing mix:

  • Product

The product is the goods or services being marketed to the target audience. 

It is essential to understand the product before you come up with a marketing campaign. This would require you to understand the target audience for the product, the reason behind its popularity, and what makes it different from other products in the market. If the product is completely new, then you need to research the market to identify its target customer base, what customer pain points it’s resolving, or why customers would use it. 

Marketers are responsible for defining the product and its qualities, followed by introducing it to the customer. Defining the product is key to its distribution. By understanding the life cycle of a product, marketers, and business executives can develop a plan for dealing with the product at every stage of the life cycle. Marketing a product also depends on what type the product is. It helps in determining its cost, location, as well as the advertising mode. 


When it comes to groundbreaking products, many products that achieved unparalleled success were the first in their category. Let’s take the example of the smartphone revolution ignited by Apple which started with the introduction of the iPhone. Before its debut, consumers may have not fully grasped the need for a device that seamlessly integrated various functions.

Apple’s ingenious marketing strategy. They simplified the user experience along with convincing customers that they could streamline their lives by consolidating multiple tools into a single device. Therefore, apart from the communication advantages, the iPhone also serves as a GPS, flashlight, calendar, calculator, search engine, and weather guide. Apple refined the way people interacted with technology.

The success stories of pioneering products extend beyond Apple’s iconic iPhone. Consider the advent of the electric car market, where Tesla positioned itself as the market leader. Tesla’s introduction of the Model S, the first premium electrical sedan, disrupted the automobile industry. Its innovation in the electric vehicle technology, coupled with sleek design and performance, captivated consumers and propelled Tesla to the forefront of the electric vehicle revolution. 

Moreover, the phenomenon of the Instant Pot in the kitchen appliances sector signifies the impact of introducing a novel product. The Instant Pot is a multifunctional pressure cooker where you can cook by combining various kitchen appliances into one. Its versatility, time efficiency, and convenience quickly garnered a massive following, making it a staple in kitchens across the globe. 

Therefore, companies that introduce innovative and transformative products not only capture the market share but also shape consumer behaviors and expectations. The power of first-mover advantage is evident in the continued success of these products. It demonstrates that setting new standards in the product categories is a winning strategy in the ever-evolving landscape of customer preferences.  

  • Price
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The second element in the 4Ps of marketing refers to the price, which is the cost of a product or service. 

The pricing strategy needs to be implemented in such a manner so that you can generate a profit in the end. Remember that the price of a product has a significant impact on the decision-making process. Marketers must link a product’s price with respect to its value and demand. You also need to consider various other elements like supply cost, seasonal discounts, retail markup, as well as competitor’s prices. 

When creating a pricing plan, you need to consider the different perspectives and align the value to suit your customer needs. For instance, you can increase the price of your product if it’s a luxury or exclusive item. Alternatively, you can keep the price lower to attract the attention of more customers. 

It is also the responsibility of markers to determine when and if discounts can be implemented in the pricing strategy. A discount can work effectively in drawing more customers. However, it can also give the impression that a product is less desirable than it was. Either way, how you advertise your product will depend on the price at which it is sold. In most cases, the price points of a product can make it or break it. 


When it comes to the price aspect of the 4Ps of marketing, UNIQLO stands out. Renowned for its fashionable yet affordable priced casual wear, UNIQLO competes with industry giants like Zara and Gap while maintaining a unique approach to pricing. The company achieved success in offering budget-friendly, trendy garments rooted in its strategic procurement practices. 

Much like its competitors, UNIQLO keeps its costs low by purchasing fabrics in large volumes. However, the factor that sets this company apart is its relentless pursuit of the highest-quality and lowest-cost materials worldwide. By maintaining a commitment to innovation and quality, the company ensures its products remain both affordable and stylish, and appeal to a broad demographic of younger buyers.

Moreover, the company’s approach to pricing also involves direct negotiations with manufacturers and the establishment of strategic partnerships with innovative Japanese manufacturers. These partnerships contribute to UNIQLO’s ability to introduce cutting-edge designs and ensure a competitive edge in the market.

In the technology sector, Apple has strategically positioned its products in different price tiers. Apple’s pricing strategy includes offering premium products like the iPhone Pro series alongside a budget-friendly option like the iPhone SE. The tiered pricing approach allows Apple to meet consumer demands with varying pricing constraints and expand its market reach at the same time while maintaining a strong market presence. 

Another example can be considered in the competitive world of e-commerce. Amazon, one of the largest retailers in the globe uses a dynamic pricing strategy. The retail giant employs innovative algorithms to continuously monitor its competitors’ prices and adjust its prices accordingly. This ensures that Amazon remains competitive and provides its customers with products at competitive prices, fostering customer loyalty.

Now, let’s take the airline industry as an example. Airlines utilize sophisticated algorithms to adjust ticket prices based on factors like the demand, time until departure, and even the user’s browsing history. This flexible pricing strategy allows airlines to maximize revenue by offering lower prices during off-peak times and adjusting prices during high-demand periods.

Thus, you can either opt for low pricing, tiered pricing models, strategic partnerships, or dynamic pricing algorithms for your products. Strategically leverage the pricing to capture the market share as well as meet the diverse needs of the customer base.

  • Place

According to the 4P’s of marketing, a place is where you sell your product and distribution channels you use to reach your customers.

These are usually referred to as the physical stores with tangible products and for retailers who will resell those products. The placement of the products plays a critical role. For instance, you would not display luxury cosmetics products in Walmart or Dollar Store rather than in Sephora. 

Business executives always aim to display the products in front of customers who are most likely to purchase them. This means that a product can also be placed in certain stores where it’s displayed to its best advantage. So, if you put your product in a place where your target customer doesn’t visit, whether it’s online or offline, you will most likely not meet the sales target. Therefore, the significance of placing your products in the right place can help you connect with your target audience. 

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In marketing mix examples for place, the choice of platforms plays an important role. For example, in today’s digital age, TikTok can be used to attract the attention of the younger generation. If you are promoting your products through social media platforms, it can be a game-changer. However, it may not be impactful for older audiences where selecting a traditional advertising channel might prove to be effective. 

If you consider the fast-food chain industry, McDonald’s is known for its strategic location of its outlets. The company has strategically opened its outlets in high-traffic areas which ensures maximum visibility and accessibility. This approach capitalizes on impulse purchases and caters to on-the-go customers. This strategic decision has resulted in the company’s global success. 

When it comes to e-commerce, Amazon’s dominance is synonymous with strategic placement. With its vast online marketplace, Amazon has established itself as a one-stop marketplace for diverse products, with an extensive variety along with convenient and reliable delivery options. The company’s strategic placement in the e-commerce landscape has made it a go-to destination for shoppers, highlighting the importance of being where your customers are.  

Consider another example of the evolving streaming services where strategic placement is essential. Platforms like Netflix strategically curate and place content based on user preference. They employ algorithms that recommend shows and movies tailored to individual tastes. The personalized approach to content placement enhances the user experience significantly and retains subscribers. 

So, you can leverage digital platforms, dominate the e-commerce landscape, strategically place products in influential cultural contexts, or optimize physical locations for maximum visibility. Make sure to understand your customer base before you develop an effective place strategy that reaches your target audience and resonates with them.

  • Promotion

Product promotion is the step where you advertise your product or service. Through the aid promotion, you get the word out about your product to your target audience. Develop an effective marketing campaign so that more numbers of people become aware of your product. You have to ensure the campaign resonates with your target audience which will help in converting your prospects to customers. 

In the 4 marketing Ps, promotion is considered one of the most vital stages. It encompasses advertising, public relations, and overall media strategy for introducing and promoting a product. You can also take the traditional routine of print advertisements, word-of-mouth, television commercials, and more. Alternatively, you can combine both approaches to create an effective promotional strategy.

Marketers usually tie various promotional and placement elements together to reach their target audience. For example, in the digital landscape, both the elements of place and promotion can be digital as well as offline. You can promote a product on the company’s web page or social media and incorporate targeted ads for the product so that it reaches a wide variety of people. 


Let’s check out the marketing mix 4Ps example with respect to promotion. The fast-food giant McDonald’s introduced the “Happy Meal” in 1979, accompanied by engaging promotions featuring a variety of toys. This promotional strategy not only boosted sales but also enhanced customer satisfaction and created a positive association with the brand among young customers. The company’s continuous innovation in promotional tactics, from Monopoly game promotion to limited-time collaborations. 

When it comes to the fashion industry, they leverage the power of celebrity endorsements in promotions. Nike’s collaborations with the basketball legend Michael Jordan revolutionized sports marketing and propelled the Air Jordan brand into a cultural phenomenon. The strategic use of celebrity endorsements continues to be a potent promotional tool, especially for fashion and lifestyle brands which fosters connections with customers. 

In the digital realm, the viral marketing campaign of the Ice Bucket Challenge for ALS awareness (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) stands out. The simplicity of the campaign, combined with the power of social media, led to widespread participation, garnering attention and donations globally. This example highlights the impact of leveraging social media platforms to promote a cause and engage a broad audience. 

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Therefore, you can create imaginative and long-lasting campaigns through celebrity endorsements, innovative product launches, or by utilizing the power of social media. Use effective factors for brand recognition and sustained consumer engagement. 

How to Use the 4Ps in Your Marketing Strategy?

The four Ps provide a strategic framework upon which you can create your marketing plan. Think about each of the factors carefully and consider your audience and how you can reach them effectively. 

Product: When diving into your marketing strategy, the first P calls for a thorough analysis of your product. Before you market a product, identify the distinctive characteristics that set it apart. Whether it is durable, aesthetic, or user-friendly, highlight the qualities that make it irresistible to your target consumers. You can ask the following questions when working on a product:

  • What is your product?
  • What does the product do and what gaps is it meeting?
  • Who are your target customers?
  • How is your product distinctive?

Price: The second P comprises price which is an extremely critical factor. Determining the appropriate price of a product extends beyond production cost. It involves strategically positioning the product in the market. Evaluate the perceived value and align the pricing strategy with the desired marketing positioning. Your pricing decision directly impacts consumer perception and market competitiveness. Ask the following questions when considering your products’ price:

  • What is the price range of your target customer?
  • What is the price range of your product’s competitors?
  • What price is too low or too high for your customers?
  • What price best fits your target market?

Place: The third element that is placed revolves around selecting the optional distribution channels, both online and offline. Identify the type of stores that align with your target customers. It can be high-end boutiques, specialty stores, or online marketplaces. Implement a strategic placement strategy to ensure your product is accessible to your target audience by placing them at the right locations. You can consider the following questions when deciding on this strategy:

  • Where do your target customers shop?
  • Where will you sell your products?
  • What distribution channels are best to reach your target market?

Promotion: The final P emphasizes understanding your target audience to implement diverse promotional strategies. Utilize various advertising approaches based on the appeal of your product to specific demographics. Whether it resonates with the youthful audience, professionals seeking upscale products, or budget-conscious customers, tailor our media and messaging to reach the right audience and engage with them effectively. Ask the following questions when deciding the promotional strategy:

  • What are the best marketing channels to reach your target audience?
  • What approaches can be the most persuasive to your audience?
  • What is the best time to reach your target customers?

Evolution of the 4Ps to 7s

With time, the marketing mix evolved from the 4Ps to the 7Ps. The modern marketing mix includes three more elements which include: 

  • People

In the present marketing landscape, the emphasis is placed on the individuals who represent the brand. This includes not only sales and customer service personnel but also social media influencers as well as viral marketing campaigns. 

  • Process

The process is the logical aspect of the business operations. With consumers increasingly demanding swift and efficient delivery, meeting their expectations in terms of product accessibility and timeliness is crucial. 

  • Physical Evidence

One of the newest additions to the marketing mix is physical evidence. It focuses on establishing credibility and legitimacy in the eyes of consumers. Whether selling designer clothes online or any product, a professionally designed website with transparent company information, quality packaging, and reliable delivery services is essential. These aspects assure the customers of the product’s authenticity and trustworthiness.


Thus, the 4Ps of marketing mix form the foundation based on which you can create innovative marketing strategies for your business. You can further combine it with the 7Ps and utilize the modern marketing mix to develop more refined strategies. Follow the different steps and ask the relevant questions to get fruitful results.